Types of Commercial Composting Systems

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Vermicomposting

Vermicomposting is a process that uses various worms to transform wastes into a nutrient-rich fertilizer. It can be used to dispose of organic waste, such as household rubbish, yard waste, feces of animals and waste materials during agriculture. Small-scale vermicomposting is a common phenomenon used at home. It is environmental and convenient for families to handle household waste, such as vegetable peels, fruit peels, leaves, etc.vermicomposting

There are some essential procedures to complete vermicomposting at home. You have to prepare 5 basic components for the vermicomposting process.

  • A container with air holes
  • Wet bedding
  • Worms
  • Water
  • Organic wastes

Firstly, choose a container as the composting bin. Drill about 15 holes in the bottom, sides of the bin. Put the box on wooden blocks, and place a sheet of plastic or a tray under the box.
Secondly, prepare some shredded newspapers or cardboard for the bedding. Then soak the bedding with water. Put the bedding in the bin. The bedding for vermicomposting must be able to keep both wet and air while providing a place for the worms to live. And the amount of the bedding depends on the size of the box.
Thirdly, select right worms and put worms on the composting bin. Add some soil on the bedding, then put these organic wastes on the top of soil.
Finally, place the contain box on a suitable environment. Vermi-compost process can be finished after 3 months.

In-Vessel composting

In-Vessel composting (IVC) is a common way for transforming food and garden waste into compost. These in-vessel-compostingraw materials are put into an enclosed environment, such as a tunnel, container, or vessel to begin compost. The whole compost process takes place in an enclosed vessel with accurate temperature control and monitoring. The In-Vessel composting system is usually used for large-scale organic waste processing in cities and towns. It also effectively solved the problem of environmental pollution.

In-Vessel composting has many advantages as below:

  • This composting system is fully automatic, and almost replaces manpower. It is much fasterthan other traditional forms of composting.
  • The composting process is clean, quiet, safe and weatherproof. And the process is natural and typically requires no added heat.
  • The In-Vessel composting plant can dispose of all kinds of wastes. And it has the advantages of high production rate.
  • It can reduce the environment pollution, and save collection cost, etc.
  • The compost period is short. The in-vessel composting reduces land area of the organic waste.

Windrow Composting

Windrow composting is also called open windrow composting (OWC), which requires windrow composting machine and is suitable for producing large volumes of compost in agriculture. This type of composting is usually used to handle garden waste, shrubs, trees, animal manure, crop residues in long rows. The rows are intended to promote air circulation, remove moisture, and improve porosity and oxygen content. The temperature of the windrows must be measured and logged constantly to determine the optimum time to turn them for quicker compost production.

The windrow composting system is regard as a sustainable, cost-efficient way for farmers to manage dairy waste. The main function of compost turner is used to mix and turn agricultural waste and other material windrow compost machineinto organic fertilizer for farm use. Our compost turner machines, Hydraulic Compost Turner and Self-Propelled Compost Turner, are suitable for the turning and fermentation of organic waste, such as agricultural straws, grasses, sludge waste, and straw sawdust.

Advantages of Hydraulic Compost Turner:
Hydraulic Compost Turner is widely used in farm, grazing land, fertilizer factory etc. It is especially compost in harmless and resourceful treatment of livestock manure, agricultural waste, sludge and industrial organic waste. Moreover, Hydraulic Compost Turner adopts the advanced drum design, which can change variable drum speed, and peak windrow for greater aeration and temperature control. Besides, this machine has centralized control cabinet, can achieve the manual or automatic control function. The compost turner is equipped with hydraulically retractable drum, so that the machine can lift completely out of the row rapidly, and also can lock in place for safe transport. Meanwhile, it also has the advantages of efficiency, smooth operation, strong and durable, even turning throw. It is ideal equipment for large scale organic fertilizer production plant.

Rectangular Agitated Bed Composting

The Rectangular agitated bed composting uses long, narrow beds to compost. Organic materials can be rotated periodically with the function of the auto-mated compost turner. This system can produce the highest quality compost in the shortest time period. This method is suitable for processing organic waste such as animal manures, sludge waste and crop waste, etc.

There are two mainly types compost turner always used in this agitated bed composting, which are Groove Type Compost Turner and Double Helix Compost Turner. The compost equipment use variable frequency speed walking system, which can adapt to changes in workload. That can shorten the fermentation period groove type compost turnerand improve the production efficiency.

Working principle of Groove type compost turner:
It mainly includes gear, lifting device, walking device and transfer vehicle, (mainly used in multi-groove) etc. It adopts variable frequency speed regulation, which can adapt to deep groove operation, different materials, stable running and high turning efficiency. Motor drives the cycloidal reducer which drives the turning roller by the sprocket. The impeller is constantly flipped and stirred in the fermentation tank, which makes materials have a well-air-contact, and short-period fermentation. The composting and turning process can be controlled automatically by using of our machine. With the function of vertical and horizontal walking devices, the organic waste is flipped continuously. In a word, the machine can be used at fermentation room, fermentation tank.

Aerated static pile composting

The Aerated Static Pile composting (ASP) is the simplest and least cost method to composting large volumes of organic waste materials. It is used to biodegrade organic wastes without physical manipulation during composting. The aerated static piles system is suitable for those compost large volumes of livestock manure, yard debris and other feed-stock materials.

It has become the standard for providing aeration to active compost piles for many years. For example, in Massachusetts approximately 500,000 tons of animal manure is produced each year. The low cost aerated static composting systems are widely used for small acreage equine operations, and greatly reduce the cost of composting operations. In Thailand this system has been used by 470 farmer groups since 2008.

Function of these pipes:
The aerated static pile composting system uses fan to push and pull air through the pipe during Aerated static pile compostingcomposting. And this system adopts pipe-on-ground to maximize the flexibility of the working area. The organic waste placed on these pipes, can provide air circulation for controlled aeration. Air was sent into the pipe by the blower, and then transferred into the pile. These air pipes are used to increase oxygen supply, and prevent formation of anaerobic conditions. Therefore the air drawn through the pile is passed through a bio-filter (wood chips, leaves, and compost) to remove some odorous chemical substances, such as volatile organic carbon, sulfuric acid, etc. It also sufficiently controls the temperature of compost, further deals with odor control in biological filters.

Anaerobic Digestion

Anaerobic Digestion is a natural process that organic wastes break down micro-organisms material without oxygen. The process happens in the closed space no air, which is known as a digester. It is used for industrial or domestic purposes to handle waste or to produce fuels. And the system has a wide range of applications compared with other composting.

There are three types of anaerobic digestion systems, which are farm-based systems, food processing systems and centralized systems. The farm-based system is widely used in small and medium farms. It has been successfully operated in North America and Europe. It uses animal manure from farms as the feed-stocks, provides sufficient heat or power for the farm. Didestate produced by this system can be used as fertilizer for second-use in farm. Centralized system is all around in European. All kinds of feed-stocks from farms and food processing plant are transformed to the centralized facility to have an anaerobic digestion process.

Digester almost can accept any kinds of feed-stocks, such as waste paper, sewage, oils, food waste, animal manure, crops residue, etc. Three primary products are produced, which are biogas, digestate(an organic fertilizer), waste-water. Digestate is a fully fermented nutrient-rich material. Almost all of nutrients from feed-stock are contained in the digestate. Therefore digestate can replace organic fertilizers as an excellent organic fertilizer.

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